To what extent does reason in the Catholic religion influence our moral beliefs and the laws that rule society?

We are driven by ethical norms, laws and reason, in order to provide a sense of what is considered to be right or wrong. We are often encouraged to help those in need and report any event considered a crime. Nonetheless, although it is portrayed in a simplistic way, there are situations that prevent us to confidently differentiate what is considered as wrong or right, as a result, our reason can be conflicted as well.

A real life situation can be found in the Catholic church debating on whether or not expose those who have committed any sexual abuse. “Pontifical secret” is a law within the Catholic Church, which prevents bishops from sharing the confessions made regarding sexual abuse. As a result, this is where many are unable to know what to do.



On the side of religion, the confessions made are meant to be kept a secret. That is one of the main rules followed by Catholicism and perhaps other religions. If the privacy and secrecy of the confessions were to be violated, followers would fear to confess.

Within the article, it is said that the religious teachings teach that the civil laws should be followed. However, are the bishops meant to follow laws regarding the secrecy or the laws regarding reporting the abuse?



From the ethical side, it shouldn’t matter that the confessions are meant to be kept a secret. The Catholic church has the moral obligation of reporting any crime, specially if it can save an individual’s life. If the Catholic church were to be keeping very sensitive information, then they would be considered as accomplices of the crime by not reporting the facts.

We have the moral obligation of helping those who aren’t able to protect themselves. If we focus on protecting the Catholic church, who will help the victim? Delicate events such as sexual abuse can be an extremely traumatizing experience. Furthermore, putting a stop to the victim’s suffering is considered to be the right thing to do.



Depending from what point of view it is seen from, it is where reason appears. From the Catholic church side, it is reasonable to not report any incongruous confession due to it being against the religious laws imposed in Catholicism. Whereas from the ethical side and the human sciences, it would be reasonable to expose those events, due to them going against humans and our moral values.

In conclusion, reason is able to influence the way we see a certain situation. It can be within religion, a human science or ethics. Depending on our points of view and the circumstances, it is how we can be conflicted as in what to do and how should we respond.


Word count: 450


Bibliography – information:


Bibliography – images:

[1] GIPHY. 2017. Secret GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 22 February 2017].

[2] GIPHY. 2017. GIPHY Originals GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 22 February 2017].

[3] GIPHY. 2017. Reaction GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 22 February 2017].

Video: 2017. Julia Galef: Why you think you’re right — even if you’re wrong | TED Talk | [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 22 February 2017].

Main image: {}: On Being Called An American. 2017. {}: On Being Called An American. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 22 February 2017].


To what extent has religion been used for personal gain?

Faith makes people believe that if they follow the religious teachings, they will be compensated pleasantly. Many individuals have requested God’s aid for personal gain, ignoring whether or not it was acceptable. Throughout the course of history, it can be seen how religion was used as a justification to commit several crimes.



An example is the attack to the weekly newspaper “Charlie Hebdo” in France. Muslim extremists felt that their religion had been disrespected because they saw the satirical comics, regarding the Prophet Muhammad, as inappropriate. They used the attack as a method to stop people presenting their religion in such ways.



Another example can be found in the “Thuggee murders”. Members of the Thuggee sect would offer sacrifices in order to appease the goddess Kali. In both examples, extreme measures were used in order to obtain something in return.

In the case of the attack, they wanted to stop people from referring to important figures of their religion in such ways. In the case of the Thuggee murders, they wanted to appease the goddess, and not feel her wrath. History has shown us that not only do we commit horrible acts to appease the gods, it also shows that there are those whose faith is unbreakable.

Within religion, language is used to interpret the religious texts and experiences lived. Sense perception is also involved, in the sense that the eyes are needed to read the divine texts. Nonetheless, the interpretations made can vary depending on the individual, their experiences, their knowledge and more. 



An example is the attack to Charlie Hebdo. Two of the major teachings of the Prophet Muhammad is that actions are judged based on the intentions behind them and that a person shouldn’t cause harm to oneself and to others. The Muslims might of thought that, based on this two major teachings, if they attack the newspaper, they will be able to stop them from being offensive towards them. From their perspective, their actions are justified, even if others got hurt, because they were trying to stop others from being obscene when referring to their religion.

In conclusion, religion is one of the areas of knowledge commonly use for personal gain. Each individual has different objectives in mind, and an excuse is often wanted in order to freely do what they desire. The outcome can be good or bad, nonetheless the personal gain remains existent.


Word count: 400


Bibliography – information

Bibliography – images

[1] International Business Times. 2017. Charlie Hebdo Shooting: Journalists In Europe Face Increasing Violence and Intimidation. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 14 February 2017].

[2] GIPHY. 2017. sahlooter GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 11 February 2017].

[3] GIPHY. 2017. GIPHY Originals GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 11 February 2017].

Video: “Obama At Prayer Breakfast Speech | People Committed Terrible Deeds In Name Of Christ During Crusades”. YouTube. N.p., 2017. Web. 11 Feb. 2017.

Main image: “The Truth About The People You Can’t Forgive”. The Huffington Post. N.p., 2017. Web. 11 Feb. 2017.

TOK activity: Visual arts

The title of our group’s creation is “The trash”. The chosen topic is immigrants not being welcomed to other countries, due to problems in their own. It is linked to Donald Trump’s policies regarding immigrants in general, stating that he would build a wall between Mexico and United States. We decided to portray the chosen topic based on Donald Trump’s ideas of excluding immigrants.

Within the picture, Julia represents Donald Trump and she possess an orange color to represent Donald Trump more prominently, who possess a noticeable orange tan. Donald Trump is looking down upon “the trash” which represents the immigrants. We decided to represent immigrants that way, due to the fact that Trump doesn’t consider immigrants as people but as trash. The trash can represents the doom that Trump is making the immigrants live by not providing aid. Furthermore, the aid kit represent the aid that Trump does not want to provide. In addition, the picture was taken from that angle to represent Trump’s superiority regarding this matter, due to him possessing all the resources necessary and he believes he is superior as well.


“To what extent does your use of new/other forms of language (e.g emojis) allow you to communicate knowledge?”

Language is an abstract, complex system of arbitrary rules and symbols, allowing a connection between the object and the word to exist. Language, in the form of words, is not the only way that human beings use to communicate. There are several forms, such as body language, facial expression, sign language, and a lot more which don’t require the use of words, but the existence of a mutual agreement.



It can be verbal, non-verbal, visual. Language allows us to create, expand and organize our knowledge, as well as giving us the possibility to dream, think, imagine and much more. With language, we can understand the world around us. Language possess a symbolic function, where we encode and then externalize our wishes, fears, hopes and dreams.

different langauges.jpg


Within the verbal category, we can find the language itself, and many different kinds, such as English, Spanish, Italian, and many more. Within each specific language, there are limitless ways to speak it.

We are given a basis, but we change it, modifying it, creating our own personal language, in ways where certain people will comprehend the knowledge that we are transmitting to them. A person does not possess a “broken” or “incomplete” language,  just a diverse way of speaking and understanding it. If the person is able to express and communicate, then the language is working just fine, even if there are some words or phrases missing.



Furthermore, within different parts of the World, different language are spoken, and we can find diverse authors, philosophers, and many more, writing, and communicating their knowledge throughout their books, novels, plays, etc.

However, the only way in which we can completely “feel” and understand what it is been expressed, is by learning the language which the author originally wrote the book in.

no understanding.gif


Being bilingual, and having family members who don’t know English, personally, I find it difficult to translate certain words from one language to another, and the meaning is lost or has changed somewhere along the way. When trying to translate my knowledge, the way they perceive it, is distinct because of the fact that in English, it means something meaningful, but in Spanish, it can be easily dismissed.

A diverse range of words exist, which don’t possess a “complete” translation. An example of this is German. Several words in German can’t be fully translated, and a single word ends up being translated into a whole phrase. “Wanderlust” is the word in German, but when it’s translated into English, it means wanting to leave the comfort of your home, and travel to meeting new people, new places, etc.





Within the non-verbal language category, we can find facial expression, body language, sign, signals, and many more. Words aren’t used, but there are symbols which allow communication to take place. An example is when a person yawns, it means that he or she feels tired, or when we know the exact meaning of the colors that the traffic light possess, such as yellow is to remain stationary.

We can also express our knowledge through music or art. Emojis are often used to communicate how we are feeling at the moment, however, each emoji possess different meaning of different people, and so, there are various interpretations.



In addition, language allows me to communicate knowledge. Since others can’t guess or know how I’m feeling, language allows me to express it. It also helps me acquire personal and shared knowledge from the people around me and my environment, by listening or by looking at them. Language also allows me to think of reasons, and being able to express my reasoning.

References – information:

References – images :

Main image

[1] GIPHY. 2016. Dog GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 23 October 2016].

[2]Tumblr. 2016. the other language | Tumblr. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 23 October 2016].

[3]GIPHY. 2016. Book GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 23 October 2016].No understanding

[4]GIPHY. 2016. What GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 23 October 2016].

[5] GIPHY. 2016. Singing GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 23 October 2016].

[6]GIPHY. 2016. Light GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 23 October 2016].

[7] Lapidarium. 2016. Sir Martin Rees on our understanding of the… – Lapidarium. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 23 October 2016].

“In your everyday life, do you yourself use technology to improve how you see, hear or use other sense?”



Long before our speech started to develop, our language used as a means of communication or our expressions, and movements, our senses were always there to help with the interaction and interpretation of the outside world. Establishing a precise, distinctive meaning for each piece of information that the senses provide us with.




Our main tools which are used daily and granted the communication with the world to take place, are smell, hearing, sight, taste and touch.

Nonetheless, even though the method used to experiment and perceive the little details that the world has to offer, are the same, the interpretation and conclusions made, aren’t always similar. Not everybody perceives the world the same way as others.



They lived different experiences, obtaining both personal and experiential knowledge in their own individual ways. As a result, establishing a meaning that only them are able to understand. A certain color might carry a certain significance.

Some believe that blue connotes sadness, or red means anger. Yet others can see blue as calmness and red as courage. It depends on the interpretation made.


Moreover, there are countless people who lack a certain sense. Being differently abled, it allows them to develop another sense even further. This is where technology plays a big role, because it allowed several opportunities to appear, for those to obtain what they have lost or to make their lives easier.

Last year, a new window of possibility came into play for the area of the senses, when neuroscientist David Eagleman, talked about the idea of sensory substitution, which involves the loss of one sense, and substituting or redirecting it. Expanding the idea of creating “a new sense”.

The Versatile Extra-Sensory Transducer, or VEST, allowed the deaf to “feel” the words that are being spoken of. This is a wearable tool which translates the sounds made by a person, helping the person “feel” what is being said. It can be said that is hearing through your back, instead of using your ears. The VEST responds to any kind of noise, and sounds, which the environment are providing. This tool attempts the representation of the sound, not a code or language.



Technology not only helps in tremendous amounts at a large scale, for people who really need its aid, but also in the daily lives of many. Technology is able to improve the quality of life for many, even in a very small amount.



Although I don’t need the use of glasses, contacts, or hearing aids, technology helps me daily in order to improve my sense perception. Computers help my eyesight greatly, allowing to zoom in or out a certain image. In order for me to get a cleared view of the details. 

I have family members which need to use a hearing aid, and helps massively in terms of communication. So that everybody can participate in the conversation.

Technology has also allowed me to keep my friendships, being able to communicate with friends and family. Especially through skype, where I can see, and hear them. Even though they might on the other side of the Earth.




In  addition, the use of technology benefits me in the field of acquiring more knowledge, in order for me to improve a certain skill. In this case, technology helps me improve my nail painting skills and design making.

Often, I use the internet to watch videos, regarding nail painting and how to make certain designs. I obtain that knowledge both visually and by listening to the explanations. But, also, through touch, since I’m able to feel the cold paint on top of my nails. 


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YouTube. 2016. David Eagleman: Can we create new senses for humans? – YouTube. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 12 September 2016]. 2016. Sense Perception by Eric Moore on Prezi. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 13 September 2016].

Image references:

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YouTube. 2016. Perception and attitude are key psychological resources. (Stress explainer video 8 of 9) – YouTube. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 14 September 2016].

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[5] GIPHY. 2016. TV Land Classic GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 14 September 2016].

[6] Aviso de redireccionamiento. 2016. Aviso de redireccionamiento. [ONLINE] Available at:,d.eWE&psig=AFQjCNFXNHR_rCWwUrT67DeBZWFkGQU6MA&ust=1473990396343422. [Accessed 14 September 2016].